In this report, I'll show you how to visualize your scikit-learn model's performance with just a few lines of code. We’ll also explore how each of these plots help us understand our model better.

Creating these plots is simple.

```
import wandb
wandb.init(project="visualize-sklearn")
```

```
# Visualize single plot
wandb.sklearn.plot_confusion_matrix(y_true, y_probas, labels)
```

```
# Visualize all the plots in the Classification section below with one line of code
wandb.sklearn.plot_classifier(clf, X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test, y_pred, y_probas, labels,
model_name='SVC', feature_names=None)
# Visualize all the plots in the Regression section below with one line of code
wandb.sklearn.plot_regressor(reg, X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test, model_name='Ridge')
# Visualize all the plots in the Clustering section below with one line of code
wandb.sklearn.plot_clusterer(kmeans, X_train, cluster_labels, labels=None, model_name='KMeans')
```

If you have any questions, we'd love to answer them in our slack community.

In this report, I trained several models on the Titanic dataset, which describes the passengers aboard the Titanic. Our goal is to predict whether the passenger survived or not.

Trains model on datasets of varying lengths and generates a plot of cross validated scores vs dataset size, for both training and test sets.

Here we can observe that our model is overfitting. While it performs well on the training set right off the bat, the test accuracy gradually improves but never quite achieves parity with the training accuracy.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_learning_curve(model, X, y)`

- model (clf or reg): Takes in a fitted regressor or classifier.
- X (arr): Dataset features.
- y (arr): Dataset labels.

ROC curves plot true positive rate (y-axis) vs false positive rate (x-axis). The ideal score is a TPR = 1 and FPR = 0, which is the point on the top left. Typically we calculate the area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC), and the greater the AUC-ROC the better.

Here we can see our model is slightly better at predicting the class Survived, as evidenced by the larger AUC-ROC.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_roc(y_true, y_probas, labels)`

- y_true (arr): Test set labels.
- y_probas (arr): Test set predicted probabilities.
- labels (list): Named labels for target varible (y).

Calculates summary metrics (like f1, accuracy, precision and recall for classification and mse, mae, r2 score for regression) for both regression and classification algorithms.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_summary_metrics(model, X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test)`

- model (clf or reg): Takes in a fitted regressor or classifier.
- X (arr): Training set features.
- y (arr): Training set labels.
- X_test (arr): Test set features.
- y_test (arr): Test set labels.

Computes the confusion matrix to evaluate the accuracy of a classification. It's useful for assessing the quality of model predictions and finding patterns in the predictions the model gets wrong.

The diagonal represents the predictions the model got right, i.e. where the actual label is equal to the predicted label.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_confusion_matrix(y_true, y_probas, labels)`

- y_true (arr): Test set labels.
- y_probas (arr): Test set predicted probabilities.
- labels (list): Named labels for target varible (y).

Plots the distribution of target classes in training and test sets. Useful for detecting imbalanced classes and ensuring that one class doesn't have a disproportionate influence on the model.

Here we can see we have more examples of passengers who didn't survive than of those who survived. The training and test set seem to share the distribution of target classes, which is great news for generalizing our model outputs.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_class_proportions(y_train, y_test, ['dog', 'cat', 'owl'])`

- y_train (arr): Training set labels.
- y_test (arr): Test set labels.
- labels (list): Named labels for target varible (y).

Computes the tradeoff between precision and recall for different thresholds. A high area under the curve represents both high recall and high precision, where high precision relates to a low false positive rate, and high recall relates to a low false negative rate.

High scores for both show that the classifier is returning accurate results (high precision), as well as returning a majority of all positive results (high recall). PR curve is useful when the classes are very imbalanced.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_precision_recall(y_true, y_probas, labels)`

- y_true (arr): Test set labels.
- y_probas (arr): Test set predicted probabilities.
- labels (list): Named labels for target varible (y).

Evaluates and plots the importance of each feature for the classification task. Only works with classifiers that have a `feature_importances_`

attribute, like trees.

Here we can see that `Title`

(Miss, Mrs, Mr, Master) was highly indicative of who survived. This makes sense because `Title`

simultaneously captures the gender, age and the social status of the passengers. It's curious that `name_length`

was the second most predictive feature, and it might be interesting to dig in to why that was the case.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_feature_importances(model, ['width', 'height, 'length'])`

- model (clf): Takes in a fitted classifier.
- feature_names (list): Names for features. Makes plots easier to read by replacing feature indexes with corresponding names.

Plots how well calibrated the predicted probabilities of a classifier are and how to calibrate an uncalibrated classifier. Compares estimated predicted probabilities by a baseline logistic regression model, the model passed as an argument, and by both its isotonic calibration and sigmoid calibrations.

The closer the calibration curves are to a diagonal the better. A transposed sigmoid like curve represents an overfitted classifier, while a sigmoid like curve represents an underfitted classifier. By training isotonic and sigmoid calibrations of the model and comparing their curves we can figure out whether the model is over or underfitting and if so which calibration (sigmoid or isotonic) might help fix this.

For more details, check out sklearn's docs.

In this case we can see that vanilla AdaBoost suffers from overfitting (as evidenced by the transposed sigmoid curve), potentially because of redundant features (like `title`

) which violate the feature-independence assumption. Calibrating AdaBoost using sigmoid calibration seems to be most effective in fixing this overfitting.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_calibration_curve(clf, X, y, 'RandomForestClassifier')`

- model (clf): Takes in a fitted classifier.
- X (arr): Training set features.
- y (arr): Training set labels.
- model_name (str): Model name. Defaults to 'Classifier'

In this report, I trained several models on the Titanic dataset, which describes the passengers aboard the Titanic. Our goal is to predict whether the passenger survived or not.

Measures and plots the percentage of variance explained as a function of the number of clusters, along with training times. Useful in picking the optimal number of clusters.

Here we can see that the optimal number of clusters according to the elbow plot is 3, which is reflective of the dataset (which has 3 classes – Iris Setosa, Iris Versicolour, Iris Virginica).

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_elbow_curve(model, X_train)`

- model (clusterer): Takes in a fitted clusterer.
- X (arr): Training set features.

Measures & plots how close each point in one cluster is to points in the neighboring clusters. The thickness of the clusters corresponds to the cluster size. The vertical line represents the average silhouette score of all the points.

Silhouette coefficients near +1 indicate that the sample is far away from the neighboring clusters. A value of 0 indicates that the sample is on or very close to the decision boundary between two neighboring clusters and negative values indicate that those samples might have been assigned to the wrong cluster.

In general we want all silhouette cluster scores to be above average (past the red line) and as close to 1 as possible. We also prefer cluster sizes that reflect the underlying patterns in the data.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_silhouette(model, X_train, ['spam', 'not spam'])`

- model (clusterer): Takes in a fitted clusterer.
- X (arr): Training set features.
- cluster_labels (list): Names for cluster labels. Makes plots easier to read by replacing cluster indexes with corresponding names.

Measures a datapoint's influence on regression model via cook's distance. Instances with heavily skewed influences could potentially be outliers. Useful for outlier detection.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_outlier_candidates(model, X, y)`

- model (regressor): Takes in a fitted classifier.
- X (arr): Training set features.
- y (arr): Training set labels.

Measures and plots the predicted target values (y-axis) vs the difference between actual and predicted target values (x-axis), as well as the distribution of the residual error.

Generally, the residuals of a well-fit model should be randomly distributed because good models will account for most phenomena in a data set, except for random error.

Here we can see most of the error made by our model is between +/-5, and is evenly distributed for both training and test datasets.

**Example**
`wandb.sklearn.plot_residuals(model, X, y)`

- model (regressor): Takes in a fitted classifier.
- X (arr): Training set features.
- y (arr): Training set labels.

Let's walk through a complete example.

```
!pip install wandb -qq
from sklearn.datasets import load_boston
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier
from sklearn.svm import SVC
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
from sklearn.linear_model import Ridge
from sklearn.tree import DecisionTreeClassifier
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pandas as pd
import wandb
wandb.init(project="sklearn")
# Load data
boston = load_boston()
X = pd.DataFrame(boston.data, columns=boston.feature_names)
y = boston.target
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2)
# Train model, get predictions
reg = Ridge()
reg.fit(X, y)
y_pred = reg.predict(X_test)
# Visualize all regression plots
wandb.sklearn.plot_regressor(reg, X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test, 'Ridge')
# Make individual plots
wandb.sklearn.plot_outlier_candidates(reg, X, y)
```